Mar 03

The ‘Sad and Dark Side’ of Coaching

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Part I – Children and Youth Sports

Abuse of Power and Misconduct

Some time ago, I wrote about the ‘dark side’ of coaching. The topic of abuse in sports has been ‘taboo’ for a very long time (since the early 1950s), and was ‘swept under the rug’ by the ‘old boys network’ and a stronghold of male sport bureaucrats! This writing focuses on abuse in children and youth sports and will be followed next month with coaches in College/University Varsity Sports, and Professional sports leagues, given recent events of firing 2 prominent coaches in the NHL due to emotional/psychological, physical abuse, derogatory verbal assaults, and unacceptable behaviour toward minority players. 

Misconduct is defined as ‘unacceptable or improper behaviour by an employee or professional person.’ With the recent emergence of the ‘me too’ movement, more evidence of physical, emotional, psychological, and sexual abuse – not just female but also male athletes – is surfacing. Greater awareness rose during the 1990s, especially after Sports Illustrated published an article in 1999: Who’s coaching your kid? “The frightening truth about child molestation in youth sports. Every Parent’s Nightmare: The child molester has found a home in the world of youth sports, whereas a coach he can gain the trust and loyalty of kids – and then prey on them.” The report centered on events in the California Baseball Little League with over 100 boys ages 11-14 molested. SI showed pictures of 6 coaches on its title issue cover page. California coach Watson was sentenced to 84 years of prison time. 

According to statistics cited in reports, the average ‘preferential’ molester, the kind most common in youth sports, victimizes about 120 children before he is caught (Nack, 1999). In preying on prepubescent and newly pubescent athletes, Watson was hardly the only one. While no formal studies exist at that time to determine the exact number of child molesters, who have coached youth teams, a computer-database search of newspaper stories reveals more than 30 cases just in the last 18 months of coaches in the U.S. (1999 data), who have been arrested or convicted of sexually abusing children engaged in nine sports, from baseball to wrestling. 

For every child, who reports being molested, according to a variety of experts on child sexual exploitation, at least 10 more keep their secrets unrevealed. The molesters are almost always men, and in youth sports most, though not all, of the victims, are boys. The one girl Watson admitted molesting was only five when he began abusing her. He says because she was a player he viewed her “as just one of the boys.”

More than 10 million children in the U.S. under the age of 16 play organized sports, coached or supervised by more than a million adults, many of them unscreened male volunteers – which is to say, men on whom background checks have never been done. I may add here (Schloder), that many of these volunteers are not certified in comparison to Canada whereby the National Coaching Association requires certification, and every 3-year a police background check of all coaches – no matter the sport. 

“Youth sports are a ready-made resource pool for pedophiles, and we better all get our heads out of the sand before we ruin the games,” says Bob Bastarache, police officer turned private investigator, and current president of one of New England’s largest AAU clubs, the Bristol Stars, of New Bedford, Mass. “Parents today are so busy, they’re allowing coaches to take over the after-school hours, and that’s the foot in the door pedophiles need” (Nack 1999). I (Schloder) want to add, that one parent left a child in my care for 3 hours after gym practice (went shopping and forgot!), which would have been plenty of opportunity and time to abuse the child – if I happened to be a predator.

Today, the reporting of child molestation in youth sports is about where the reporting of rape was 30 years ago. However, there are indications that things are slowly changing. After decades of being ignored, minimized or hidden away, the molestation of players by their coaches is no longer the sporting culture’s ‘dirty little secret.’ “I’m no longer surprised when I read that this or that pillar of the coaching community has been accused or convicted of multiple counts of child molestation,” says Steven Bisbing, a clinical and forensic psychologist from Takoma Park, Md., who studies sexual abuse of children by authority figures. “It’s not an isolated problem, just a few bad apples.” This was the prevailing view for a long time: “It’s isolated. It’s one guy. They’re rid of him. No more problem.” That’s absurd… It occurs with enough regularity across the country, at all levels [of society], that it should be viewed as a public problem.”

While sport is considered to be a safe and healthy environment that contributes to the positive development of young people, it is also an area where abuse of power can manifest itself in various ways, including sexual assault. The term ‘sexual assault’, however, is not used very often in sports literature rather the expression ‘sexual abuse.’ Sexual abuse of young people in sport is a fairly new field of research and studies undertaken to date have methodological limitations that have to be taken into account. Definitions of sexual abuse vary from one study to the next and depend on the individual country or even vary within Provinces in Canada, according to studies. In addition, protocols used to determine the prevalence and characteristics of sexual abuse in sport are presented essentially in terms of frequency of occurrence (percentages). Therefore, there is limited information on possible links between variables such as gender, sporting level, type of sport, and so forth.

According to the Institut national de santé publique, Quebec City, Canada, and studies by the University of Laval show that between 2% and 8% of minor-age athletes are victims of sexual abuse. An analysis of 159 cases of sexual abuse reported in print media revealed that the perpetrators were coaches, teachers, and instructors in 98% of the cases. Various studies on the experiences of young athletes, who have been sexually abused, have shown that certain characteristics or factors consistently recur. However, it goes without saying that all young athletes are vulnerable to sexual abuse and that the presence of the characteristics or factors identified in these studies does not automatically lead to victimization. However, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the risk factors for sexual abuse in sport, sexual abuse of boys, and prevention.

Studies on sexual abuse in sport indicate that abusers use a range of strategies to achieve their ends. Brackenridge (2001) explains that a relationship of trust is gradually established between a young athlete and the person in a position of authority. Over time, the boundaries of this relationship between athletes and such are crossed, leading to situations of sexual abuse. The strategies adopted by abusers are designed to persuade or force young people to enter into a sexual relationship, as abusers make sure that the young athlete cooperates and keeps the situation a secret. This process reflects the power position of the coach over young athletes

Risk Factors

Current available studies suggest that certain characteristics of young athletes, coaches, and the specific sport environment (sport culture like Junior Hockey) may increase the vulnerability of young people toward sexual abuse. However, it goes without saying that all young athletes are vulnerable to abuse and that the presence of the characteristics identified in these studies does not automatically lead to victimization. That being said, research on the experiences of young athletes who have been sexually abused has shown that certain characteristics or factors consistently recur. 

Factors fall into five categories:

  • Related to people involved in sports (particularly coaches)
  • Related to the young athletes concerned
  • Related to the coach-athlete relationship
  • Related to the culture of that specific sport  
  • Related to the specific institution that oversees and regulates the specific sport (sports clubs, sport federation)

The Coach-Athlete Relationship

Coaches have a major influence on young athletes. While this can be extremely positive in most cases, coaches sometimes overstep the boundaries of a healthy relationship between themselves and the young people under their responsibility. If they misuse their power young athletes can find themselves in a situation of vulnerability. Young athletes often place a great deal of trust in their coaches, and ill-intentioned individuals can take advantage of this to exert their power and dominance, creating a major risk for sexual abuse.

The Culture of Sport

Certain inappropriate behaviours, considered unacceptable in most contexts, take on a certain normalcy in a sports environment. Likewise, injuries and pain are viewed as being normal. According to research, a number of sexual abuse risk factors are related to the culture of sport itself, including the ‘blind trust’ that certain parents have in their child’s coach, and the importance attached to the performance of young athletes at the expense of their well-being. Junior hockey in Canada was faced with big sexual misconduct of players during the 1990s. We could argue it was the ‘quid pro quo’ by a coach to secure sexual favours for guaranteeing the player the entry to NHL level of hockey. Parents and community members in Saskatchewan, Canada were aware of the coach’s behaviour BUT ‘winning’ was more important AND winning he did! He ended up in jail but went overseas when released to coach again!

Sports Institutions and Organizations

Studies to prevent and manage sexual abuse within sports organizations suggest that, despite the efforts deployed to protect young athletes, major improvements are needed to provide these young people with optimum protection against sexual abuse. Researchers note that sports organizations lack the resources and knowledge needed to prevent and act on sexual abuse. Moreover, they do not always perform adequate screening when hiring people to work in sport and few have implemented sexual abuse prevention measures. As the USA does not have a common professional Chartered Coaching Association – individual sport federations “run their own businesses – and many incidents get ‘swept under the rug’!”

What is going on?

I have coached several sports from Beginner to Olympic level throughout the years of my career: swimming, artistic gymnastics, athletics (track and field), modern pentathlon (swimming and running events), and rhythmic sportive at the regional and national level. I have followed these sports and cases of abuse for a long time. While I am addressing such incidences, especially in swimming and gymnastics; however,  there are various reports from figure skating, speed skating, athletics, basketball, tennis, etc. as coaches continue their unethical behaviour unchecked.

Some Examples:

Canada and Swimming

A Swimming Canada disciplinary tribunal suspended coach Matt Bell of Ajax, Ont., for life in relation to sexual abuse convictions. Swimming Canada CEO Ahmed El-Awadi filed a formal complaint under the organization’s harassment policy after the former high-performance coach and CEO of Ajax Swimming was sentenced in November 2016 to seven months in jail, two years probation, and his name was added to the national sex offender registry. An independent panel organized to handle the issue has ruled that Bell is suspended from all Swimming Canada activities for life, effective immediately. “We respect the decision and it sends a message that our policy is zero tolerance of sexual assault and harassment,” El-Awadi said. The organization suspended Bell indefinitely in November 2015 when informed of criminal charges of sexual assault, sexual exploitation, and four counts of luring a person under 18 years. Bell pleaded guilty to the charges of sexual exploitation and luring, according to the Pickering News Advertiser. Swimming Canada is keeping all other information relating to the case confidential in order to protect the victims. “We will continue to do everything in our power to ensure every individual can pursue his or her potential in a safe environment,” El-Awadi added. I do believe that there are still cases, which have not surfaced! 

Contrast: USA Swimming and USA Gymnastics 

Exclusive Reference with modifications: Retrieved February 23, 2020, from https: www.ocregister.com/2018/02/16investigation-usa-swimming-ignored-sexual-abuse-for-decades/

For decades the sexual abuse of young athletes by their coaches lingered just beneath the surface in American swimming’s otherwise ‘golden waters.’ In 2005, USA Swimming president Ron Van Pool decided it was time to bring the issue to the surface. Giving his annual State of Swimming address, Van Pool pushed for a more aggressive approach within the sport to taking on sexual abuse. The speech, however, didn’t make much of an impression with Chuck Wielgus, then in his eighth year as USA Swimming’s executive director. “There was nothing that struck me,” Wielgus said later in deposition (see referenced Internet site). Van Pool’s warning certainly failed to spark a sense of urgency with Wielgus, the man in charge of the day-to-day operations of swimming’s national governing body at its Colorado Springs headquarters, or those around him at USA Swimming. 

Five years later, Wielgus was asked in a deposition if, in the wake of Van Pool’s speech, if USA Swimming had taken any steps to bring the organization up to speed on the sexual abuse issue? “No,” said Wielgus, who died in 2017 after a lengthy battle with colon cancer. The moment and its sense of complacency is indicative of the failure of USA Swimming to effectively address sexual abuse revealed in thousands of pages of documents obtained by the Southern California News Group (SCNG) and  Wielgus came under fire at that time for his handling of sex abuse cases. While he at first denied culpability, he later apologized in a blog post: “I wish my eyes had been more open to the individual stories of the horrors of sexual abuse. The two decades after Wielgus was hired at USA Swimming saw record-shattering Olympic success, but at what cost? The organization’s failure to check the sport’s “culture of sexual abuse” has resulted in hundreds of new young victims, SCNG has uncovered.

USA Swimming repeatedly missed opportunities to overhaul the existing culture within American swimming where sexual abuse of underage swimmers by their coaches and others in positions of power within the sport was commonplace, and even accepted by top officials and coaches, according to documents and interviews with sexual abuse survivors by former Olympians, USA Swimming officials, safe sport advocates, and some of USA Swimming’s leading financial benefactors. 

Top USA Swimming executives, board members, top officials, and coaches acknowledge in the documents that they were aware of sexually predatory coaches for years, in some cases even decades, but did not take action against them. In at least 11 cases either Wielgus or other top USA Swimming officials declined to pursue sexual abuse cases against high profile coaches even when presented with direct complaints, documents show. With some of the complaints, the decision not to pursue the case was made by Susan Woessner, USA Swimming’s current director of Safe Sport. In 1972, I reported (Schloder) about a swim coach sleeping with his female athletes. I was told: “you are just jealous that he pays no attention to you” (I was coaching another team)! I will report on this coach in the next newsletter. He ‘wandered’ round throughout the USA with various positions, ending up in Florida at a university before he was dealt with for his misconduct!

Three U.S. Olympic team head coaches and USA Swimming vice president were told in the 1980s that a world-renowned coach had sexually abused a female swimmer beginning when she was 12. Wielgus was informed of the allegations against the coach at least three times. But not only did USA Swimming not pursue a case against the coach, but it also allowed him to continue to have access to USA Swimming facilities, U.S. Olympic and national team events, and the Olympic Training Center. USA Swimming even awarded the club owned and operated by him more than $40,000 in grants. The coach was only banned after pleading guilty to sexual assault, more than a quarter-century after the abuse was first brought to the attention of Olympic coaches. 

In the more than 20 years since Wielgus took charge of USA Swimming in July 1997, at least 252 swim coaches and officials had been arrested, charged by prosecutors, or disciplined by USAS for sexual abuse or misconduct against individuals under 18. Those coaches and officials have a total of at least 590 alleged victims, some of them abused while attending preschool swim classes. USA Swimming board members and coaches acknowledged they were aware of statutory rape cases that occurred during U.S. national team trips to major international competitions. 

Since 2010, USA Swimming kept a list of more than 30 coaches and officials ‘flagged’ after being arrested or accused by law enforcement of sex crimes including rape and child pornography but were not disciplined by USA Swimming. Some coaches and officials were not even banned even after having been convicted of felonies. Only six of 32 coaches on the list in 2010 were banned; however, the list is not available to the public. When coaches and officials are banned for life for sexual misconduct it can be years before their names are listed on the permanently banned list on USA Swimming’s website. 

Local swim clubs that are members of USA Swimming are insured by U.S. Sports Insurance Company Inc. (USSIC) with $31.3-million in assets. The company, originally based in Barbados, was created and solely owned by USA Swimming, and governed by former and current USA Swimming officials. While USSIC provides USA Swimming $2-million worth of liability insurance for sexual abuse civil cases until recently the company provided local clubs only $100,000 worth of coverage for similar cases. This policy of reducing the financial exposure of USSIC at the local level was a factor in generating millions of dollars in ‘safety rebates’ from USSIC back to USA Swimming. In some years the governing body has received back as much as $750,000. USA Swimming has also paid $77,627 to lobbying firms to lobby against legislation in California that would have made it easier for sexual abuse victims to sue their abusers and the organizations they worked for or represented in civil cases. Instead of changing U.S. swimming’s culture of sexual abuse and misconduct, documents cover nearly a quarter-century showing that top USA Swimming officials and coaches continued to undermine reforms long accepted by other sports, and refused to investigate allegations of abuse even when presented with evidence from multiple sources. 

The documents also show a strikingly similar story of USA Gymnastics where a culture of abuse enabled U.S. Olympic and U.S. women’s national team coach Larry Nassar’s sexual assault of more than 150 young athletes. In a seven-day sentencing hearing in Ingham County, Michigan that led to Nassar being sentenced to 40 to 175 years for sexual assault, many among the 156 women who testified detailed how USA Gymnastics and Michigan State officials missed clear warning signs and ignored direct complaints about Nassar’s abuse. Kathie Klages, former Michigan State University women’s gymnastics coach, whose once steadfast support of disgraced former Michigan State and Team USA doctor Larry Nassar made her a lightning rod for criticism, has been found guilty of two counts of lying to police. Klages, 65, could be sentenced to up to four years in prison, set for April 15, 2020. The former coach worked closely with Nassar during their lengthy careers in the sport. Klages said she trusted Nassar until after his arrest in 2016, so much so that she allowed her own children and granddaughter to see him as patients.

“At this time I am convinced that the only way to effectively eradicate childhood sexual abuse in swimming is to, as we are seeing now with USA Gymnastics, completely ‘clean house,’ ” said B. Robert Allard, a Bay Area attorney who has represented several former swimmers who were sexually abused by their coaches and other officials. “If this type of remedial action were justified in USA Gymnastics due to the abuse committed by one pedophile (Nassar), certainly it would be appropriate for USA Swimming where we have well over 100. We are hereby demanding the immediate removal of USA Swimming’s entire Executive Leadership Team, starting with Chief Operating Officer Mike Unger, Managing Director Pat Hogan, Executive Director Debbie Hesse, Managing Director Lindsay Mintenko and especially Safe Sport Director Susan Woessner, as well as its Board of Directors. “

“Only then can we ensure that USA Swimming has leaders in place, who take child protection seriously and won’t turn a blind eye to childhood sexual abuse because of a desire to preserve image and reputation, and consequently monetary interests.” Like the Nassar scandal, USA Swimming’s handling of sexual abuse cases has caught the attention of Congress. The House Committee on Energy and Commerce informed USA Swimming on Friday, Jan. 26 that it is “investigating matters related to sexual abuse within organized sports, including USA Swimming.” “The country attended a seven-day master class on the damage inflicted by sexual abuse. Most people will hear just 5-10 stories like this in their lifetime,” said Nancy Hogshead-Makar, an Olympic swimming champion and founder of Champion Women, an advocacy group for girls and women in sports. “We just heard 160 survivors address their abuser, Team USA’s doctor in gymnastics. Knowing the true cost, it is gratifying that Congress is looking within the Olympic sports movement and sees now another sport with over 100 Larry Nassar-types in a single sport, that is to say, USA Swimming. That’s a much bigger scale of abuse, one worthy of inquiry.”

“In my position as head of an organization that advocates for girls and women in sport, I hear the pain too many swimmers have suffered. There are still too many abusive coaches, who are either still coaching and still make it into the Hall of Fame! This is almost as bad as ethical coaches, who have been ‘blackballed’ for advocating for athletes, for doing the right thing. They’re offended by a culture of coaches that regularly go to strip clubs in the evenings after a day of competition, offended by the sexualisation of young girls but powerless to stop it.” Critics like Nancy Hogshead-Makar said the continued high rate of incidents of sexual abuse is largely the result of USA Swimming’s failure to implement policies that would create effective deterrents. 

USA Swimming emails, memos, letters, reports and notes, Congressional reports, correspondence and files, and court records as well as deposition and law enforcement interview transcripts detail a series of missed opportunities by an organization unwilling to take on its coach-centric power base and obsessed with protecting its image and brand. 

The Gatekeeper

There has been widespread sexual abuse in American swimming for decades, and Wielgus inherited a sport where high profile coaches having sex with teenage swimmers was common knowledge and even accepted. Wielgus was the “gatekeeper and had absolute control of the issue of coach-swimmer sexual abuse,” according to Katherine Starr, former Olympian and founder of Safe4Athletes, a non-profit foundation that advocates for athletes and helps sports organizations adopt policies and programs to prevent misconduct toward athletes. “As a result of my staff’s investigation, it has become clear that child sexual abuse and sexual misconduct have plagued USA Swimming since its inception in 1980,” said George Miller (D-California), Senior Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee, in his July 9, 2014 letter to FBI Director James Comey. But like Wielgus, many of those still at USA Swimming and other positions of power within the sport have not been aggressive, and have been resistant to deal with the issues. Tim Hinchey, coming from outside the world of swimming is Wielgus’ successor and faces the challenge of answering about ongoing investigations to make reforms. USA Swimming did not respond to requests for comments.

Wielgus did not respond to numerous interview requests prior to his death. A 2014 investigation by the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and The Workforce found that “detailed actionable information” about sexually abusive coaches “has been well known to USA Swimming leadership and these predators were allowed to prey with impunity because of inaction.” Miller was so concerned about USA Swimming’s history of inaction that he asked the FBI in the letter to Comey to “fully investigate USA Swimming’s handling of both past and present cases of child sexual abuse” “I am confident that the alarming allegations and high-profile reports of sexual abuse in the ranks of USA Swimming necessitate closer scrutiny by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.” Although USA Swimming officials in the past have denied that the organization has been the subject of federal investigations, the FBI and other federal investigators have conducted interviews in at least three cases, according to people familiar with those cases. Still, top USA Swimming officials haven’t appeared to share Miller’s sense of urgency or concerns, documents and interviews show. 

Hogshead-Makar in recent years asked Woessner for the reason USA Swimming wasn’t investigating published sexual misconduct allegations against a former U.S. Olympic team coach who was also a longtime USA Swimming board member and one-time member of a sexual abuse task force set up by the organization. Safe Sport was created to investigate sexual and physical abuse cases within the sport as well as create education programs and raise awareness of the issue. “Susan Woessner said, ‘Nancy what does it matter? He’s no longer coaching young swimmers anymore,’” Hogshead-Makar recalled. 

“This Safe Sport thing is a complete farce,” said Dia Rianda, a Monterey-area swim coach and administrator and for several years one of the USA Swimming Foundation’s leading financial contributors. “USA Swimming is all about protecting their brand in any way they possibly can.” That brand generated $39.62 million in revenue in 2016, according to Internal Revenue Service records and USA Swimming documents. USA Swimming paid corporate officers, trustees and key employees $3.75 million in 2016 and spent another $4.99 million in employee compensation and benefits, according to financial records. Wielgus was paid $966,047 in 2016 plus another $72,931 from the USA Swimming Foundation. USA Swimming’s priorities are clear in the documents. Wielgus was asked in a June 2010 deposition if he would confirm that protecting the safety of young swimmers, especially against sexual abuse, was USA Swimming’s top goal. “No, I would not,” Wielgus said. “…I would say that has never been our number one goal.” Instead, USA Swimming officials have been driven by Olympic success and attracting corporate sponsors, an obsession, critics charge that has come at the expense of young swimmers.   

Protecting the Brand

Protecting that brand hasn’t come cheap. USA Swimming spent $7.45 million on legal fees between 2006 and 2016, according to the organization’s financial records.  USA Swimming officials, under pressure from their secondary insurance carrier and wanting to avoid the negative publicity a lawsuit would generate, has arranged settlement agreements in at least three states with victims of alleged sexual abuse by swim coaches before the cases were even filed with a court

Resistance to Reform

How ingrained the resistance within USA Swimming’s membership was evident in the fight to pass rules prohibiting any romantic or sexual relationships between coaches and athletes as part of the organization’s Code of Conduct. USA Swimming members voted down the proposal in 2012. The measure finally passed at the group’s 2013 convention in Garden Grove but only after the U.S. Olympic Committee, under pressure from Hogshead-Makar and others, threatened to cut off funding. USA Swimming was the last national governing body (NGB) sanctioned by the USOC to pass such a rule. 

Summary: Consequences

The consequences of sexual abuse of young athletes are similar to those generally observed among victims of sexual abuse in other contexts. They are major and fall into two categories: psychological consequences (e.g. social embarrassment, problems establishing social ties, impacts on family and friends, lowered self-esteem, alcohol and drug use), and physical consequences (e.g. eating and sleep disorders). In addition, some of the consequences have a direct impact on athletes’ participation in sport: for example, these young people may decide to leave their sport or to take up another one, suffer a decline in performance, fail to attend training sessions, or find it hard to concentrate during training.

Implications for Prevention and Recommendations

More attention needs to be paid to the prevention of sexual abuse in sport. Ideally, prevention efforts should focus on a range of variables: 

  • Factors that influence implementation of preventive measures in sports organizations (training of sports administrators, leadership, support for organizations)
  • Measures to prevent sexual abuse (criminal record checks, behaviour management rules, awareness-raising)
  • Case management measures (disciplinary measures, resources for victims, complaints procedures)
  • In addition, it is essential to not tolerate behaviour in sport that would be considered unacceptable in other contexts, such as day-care centers or schools.
  • Parents can also play a role in prevention by finding out about preventive measures in place within the sport or club organization, and by choosing those that give priority to the well-being of young people.

Foremost, parents should:

  • Do a background check
  • Stay informed
  • Avoid turning the child’s coach into a babysitter
  • Avoid falling for flattery
  • Talk to the child and then listen
  • Beware of coaches bearing gifts 

Brackenridge, C.H, Fasting, K., Kirby, S., & Leahy, T. (2010). Protecting children from violence in sport – A review with a focus on industrialized countries. From the UNICEF website. www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/violence_in_sport.pdf 

Brackenridge, C., Bishop, D., Moussali, S. and Tapp, J. (2008). The characteristics of sexual abuse in sport: A multidimensional scaling analysis of events described in media reports. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(4): 385-406. 

Brackenridge, C. (2001). Spoilsports: Understanding and preventing sexual exploitation in sport. London, UK: Routledge. 

Brackenridge, C., & Kirby, S. (1997). Playing safe: Assessing the risk of sexual abuse to elite child athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 3(4): 407-418. 

Cense, M., & Brackenridge, C. (2001). Temporal and developmental risk factors for sexual harassment and abuse in sport. European Physical Education Review, 7(1): 61-79. 

Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C., Miller, K.E., & Sabo, D. (2008). Participation in college sports and protection from sexual victimization. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(4): 427-441. 

Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2004). Prevalence of sexual harassment among Norwegian female elite athletes in relation to sport type. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39(4): 373-386.

Fox News (2020, February 14). Kathie Klages, former MSU gymnastics coach, found guilty. Retrieved February 24, 2020, from https://www.fox47news.com/news/local-news/kathie-klages-former-msu-gymnastics-coach-found-guilty

Hartill, M. (2009). The sexual abuse of boys in organized male sports. Men and Masculinities, 12(2) 225-249. 

Hartill, M. (2005). Sport and the sexually abused male child. Sport, Education and Society, 10(3): 287-3044. 

Kirby, S.L., Greaves, L., & Havinsky, O. (2000). The Dome of Silence: Sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Halifax, NS, Canada: Fernwood. 

Leahy, T., Pretty, G., & Tenenbaum, G. (2008). A contextualized investigation of traumatic correlates of childhood sexual abuse in Australian athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(4): 366-384. 

Nack, W. (1999). Who’s coaching your kid? The frightening truth about child molestation in youth sports. Nack calls it: Every parent’s nightmare. The child molester has found a home in the world of youth sports, where as a coach he can gain the trust and loyalty of kids – and then prey on them. Sports Illustrated Special Report, September 13, 1999. Retrieved February 23, 2020, from https://www.si.com/vault/1999/09/13/266260/every-parents-nightmare-the-child-molester-has-found-a-home-in-the-world-of-youth-sports-where-as-a-coach-he-can-gain-the-trust-and-loyalty-of-kids–and-then-prey-on-them

Parent, S., & Bannon, J. (2012). Sexual abuse in sport: What about boys? Children and Youth Services Review, 34(2): 354-359. 

Parent, S., & El Himi, K. (2012). Sexual abuse of young people in sport. Quebec City, QC: Department of Physical Education, Université Laval AND Institut national de santé publique. Quebec City, Canada. Media Kit on sexual assault. Retrieved February 22, 2020, from https://www.inspq.qc.ca/en/sexual-assault/fact-sheets/sexual-abuse-young-people-sport

Parent, S., & Demers, G. (2010). Sexual abuse in sport: A model to prevent and protect athletes. Child Abuse Review, 20(2): 120–133.

Parent, S. (2011). Disclosure of sexual abuse in sport organizations: A case study. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 20(3): 322-337

Reid, S. M. (2018, February 16). 100s of USA swimmers were sexually abused for decades and the people in charge knew and ignored it, investigation finds. The Orange County Register. Retrieved February 23, 2020, from https://www.ocregister.com/2018/02/16/ investigation-usa-swimming-ignored-sexual-abuse-for-decades/

Stirling, A.E., & Kerr, G.A. (2009). Abused athletes’ perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship. Sport in Society, 12(2): 227-239. Toftegaard, J.N. (2001). The forbidden zone: intimacy, sexual relations and misconduct in the relationship between coaches and athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36(2): 165-182.

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